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Suggestions are made for theory development and future research incorporating situational as well as personality measures in longitudinal studies. Among those students who had been misperceived, the average of misperceptions was 4. These findings are typically explained in terms of the ambiguous meaning of many nonverbal and verbal cues P. People may be aling sexual interest when they smile, stand close, give a compliment, or pat someone of the opposite sex on the arm; however, they also may be aling friendship or attention. Additionally, this study expands the Confluence model by adding a pathway focused on the role of alcohol. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed below and then the study is described.
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UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. Sexual assault hinges on the lack of sexual consent, however, few studies have focused on investigating the normative negotiation of sexual consent particularly from the perspective of students themselves.
This study explored in depth the meaning and the negotiation of woman want casual sex burt consent from the perspective of heterosexual university students. To acknowledge the exploratory and nascent area of study, a qualitative research de was employed incorporating the ethnographic interview. Participants were heterosexually identified students between the ages of The negotiation of sexual consent was described as 1 a process occurring over time, 2 entailing the implementation of behavioural strategies to manage risks and fears, 3 involving both complex communication methods, and 4 after the fact justifications and explanations to make sense of transpired events.
This study contributes a deeper and more nuanced understanding of sexual consent processes. Implications for future research are discussed. The project was entitled Consent on Campus.
The certificate of the ethics certification obtained for this study was, H I am extremely appreciative of their honesty and their willingness to venture into vulnerable spaces on this project. This willingness undoubtedly provided me with a richer understanding of sexual consent processes.
I would very much like to thank my supervisor, Dr. Richard Young, for his ongoing support throughout this journey. Thank you for providing me with a voice of calm encouragement at times when I was most in need. I would also like to thank my past and current committee members: Dr. Susan James, Dr. Lisa Loutzenheiser and Dr. Marla Buchanan. I am appreciative of your insights, ongoing patience and willingness to offer your expertise on this project.
Finally, I am extremely appreciative of my wonderful friends and family. I would especially like to thank my parents and my brothers for supporting me through all the various career paths that I have explored. I am continuously comforted to know that no matter where I am in this world, you are behind me.
I am grateful for all of the lovely friendships I have formed here in Vancouver. Dear friends: you have acted as my surrogate family for many years brightening rainy Vancouver winters and reminding me of the crucial importance of laughter, fun and adventure. I would not have made it through this never-ending degree without your love and company.
Canadian women were five times more likely to be victims of sexual assault while men were most likely to be perpetrators. It is in our interest to contribute to the prevention of sexual assault as it negatively contributes to the mental health of our clients.
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To prevent sexual assault, however, requires a deeper understanding of why and how it may occur. Understanding sexual consent processes may deepen our understanding of what sometimes may lead to sexual assault as well as broaden our understanding of human experiences rarely discussed beyond closed doors.
Rationale Most studies that have been conducted on sexual consent have focused on how college students communicate consent to one another. Verbalization of consent depends on the type of sexual activity engaged in Hall woman want casual sex burt, and definitions of consent in research are rarely made explicit or agreed upon across studies Beres, Perspectives from college students themselves may offer important insights regarding our understanding of sexual consent and non-consent that have thus far been largely ignored Jozkowski, Fortunately, recent research examined how college students conceptualize and communicate consent and non-consent from their perspective has woman want casual sex burt conducted, including a more focused exploration of gender differences in sexual consent Jozkowski, This initial research suggests that differing expressions and interpretations of sexual consent may contribute to incidences of sexual assault.
As noted by Jozkowski a possible contributing factor to the occurrence of sexual assault is a discrepancy in interpretations of sexual consent as perpetrators mostly male and victims mostly female may work off of different understandings of consent. Furthermore, perpetrators may assume consent is present when it is absent.
Jozkowski and Peterson found the prevalence of gendered themes throughout their investigation on consent when they surveyed past event sexual experiences of both heterosexual college men and women.
Ubc theses and dissertations
The study also found that men and women may interpret and indicate consent differently and that relationship status of partners may influence consent processes. This led the author to suggest that the role of context in sexual consent processes should be explored in greater depth. Recognizing the essential role social context plays in the sexual behavior of college students and considering that sexual consent is one important aspect of sexual behavior, I believe that exploring contextual factors will lead to a richer understanding of sexual consent processes.
Research Question My overarching research question is: How do heterosexual university students negotiate sexual consent in encounters that may involve sexual woman want casual sex burt To properly address my larger research question sI have included a of sub questions: What does sexual consent mean to university students?
How do university students communicate sexual consent and non-consent to their sexual partners? How do students interpret the expression of sexual consent and non-consent in their sexual partners? Are there gender differences in communication and interpretation of consent?
For example, does a student in a long-term relationship express consent differently from a student who is in a causal sexual encounter? Does the expectation of sexual consent vary as a matter of situation? For example, is sexual consent expected to be negotiated in the same way at a party hook-up as it is on a fifth date? How do heterosexual 5 university students first learn about sexual consent and non-consent?
How does alcohol consumption change the negotiation of consent if at all? What do students think about university sexual assault messaging regarding sexual consent and non-consent is it relevant to their own experiences? Firstly, I briefly discuss sexual assault and why sexual consent may be an important area of study. Then I discuss sexual behavior more broadly including the role of social and cultural forces that shape the expression of sexual behavior and the different woman want casual sex burt of gender.
I then focus more directly on what has already been looked at in the sexual consent literature and the gaps that still exist. The inclusion criteria for articles are those published within the last 40 years, and those that focus on the experiences of heterosexual college or university students. I do not look at articles that focus on sexual encounters in the LGBTQ community because sample selected were heterosexual. While there is a plethora of articles looking at socialization processes, sexual assault and to a lesser extent, sexual consent, I chose to include what I perceive to be the most seminal articles available on the topics.
In the review of the articles that follow, I do my best to articulate how consent was defined by the researcher. Hall conceptualized sexual consent as giving permission and meaning it.
Peterson and Muehlenhard conceptualized 7 consent as a willingness to do something that may be externally manifested but it may not be and distinguished this from wanting an internal process which included desire. They found that members of their study conceptualized consent as existing on a continuum with some women equating a lack of resistance to offering their consent. Recognizing that the intention of my study is to learn from students themselves about their understanding of consent, I am hesitant about providing my own definition of sexual consent.
Evolutionary psychology says yes!
In the course of my study, my hope is to hear their voices and make sense of their own conceptualizations of the term. The definition is broad and includes a range of forced, or non-consensual sexual acts.
The term rape is typically reserved to describe forced or unwanted sexual behavior that includes penetration. Level 1 involves minor physical injuries or no injuries to the victim. Sexual assault level 2 s.
General health outcomes as well as sexual health outcomes are also negatively impacted by instances of sexual assault Jozkowski, Thus, the authors cautioned clinicians and researchers to be wary of imposing their own labels on the experiences of these women. To demonstrate the inherent connectivity between context and culture Bogle discussed the way courtship and dating has changed over the last years due to outside social forces.
Men’s perceptions of women’s sexual intent
In the calling era, men courted women by visiting them and their mothers at their shared home. The dating era followed the calling era and was marked by men and women going on dates outside of the home no longer under the watchful eyes of parents. For example, oral sex became increasingly common among heterosexual couples during the s Rubin, as cited in Bogle, Thus, as explained by Boglesexual politics are influenced by gender politics and therefore deeply enmeshed in the time, place and perspective of the surrounding culture.
Sexual behavior is highly influenced by prevailing social norms and technological advancements. Prescribed Gender Roles Prescribed gender roles speak to the societal assumptions and behavioral prescriptions placed on individuals based on natal sex Bem, Bem argued that while there are biological differences between the sexes, the gender roles that emerge from these differences are socially constructed. Furthermore, the real biological differences between the sexes have woman want casual sex burt used to justify and normalize gender inequity for centuries.
Beyond merely influencing the behaviors and perceptions of individuals, these roles are deeply embedded in the social fabric of society, in cultural discourses and social institutions. Since gender assumptions are so prevalent and deeply hidden they are easily reproduced without conscious awareness. In terms of the gender roles applied woman want casual sex burt the behavior of men and women at the individual level, they are dichotomous and rigid and therefore limiting to both genders.
The roles can be thought of as 11 existing on a continuum, with some individuals reflecting more extreme traditional role socialization than others. Since gender role socialization deeply influences the perceptions and behaviors of people at multiple levels, including sexual behaviors, it seems essential to look at gender differences in my study and to consider further the socially prescribed gender roles that may be at the root of them. How the concept of gender has been understood over time has varied.
Therefore, I briefly address the notion of gender in a broader context and introduce its conceptualizations over the years. A Brief History on Gender Conceptualizations of gender have varied across time.